Add Map, Reduce, and Filter to Groovy with an Extension Module

Having just read Michał Mally’s blog that was posted on Google+,
I was intrigued with two benefits listed in the blog:

  • The idea of being able to augment Groovy with changes that would behave as “if they were a part of original GDK”
  • support from your IDE like code completion shall be available out-of-the-box

In order to get my head around how Extension modules worked, I used the following as references
Creating an extension module
Groovy Goodness: Adding Extra Methods Using Extension Modules
Groovy Extension Modules

Cédric Champeau had this to say after I asked about the benefits of Extension Modules over using MetaClass/Expando/Category

@Juan: extension modules are automatically loaded and made available globally. You don’t have to bother with metaclasses (and potential issues with external changes). As well, categories are lexically scoped, although extension modules are global (meaning that they can be used anywhere in the code as long as the extension module is found on classpath).

Last but not least, extension modules are compatible with type checking and static compilation :)

To solidify my new understanding of Groovy’s Extension Modules, I decided that I needed to write some code. The example I came up with was to have the functional names (map, reduce, filter ) that I had come familiar with in using Clojure added to Groovy. These “extended methods” are using Groovy’s built-in collect, inject, and grep under the hood.

Source code can be found here

Here is the code for the new aliases found in the FuncProgUtilExtension.groovy class

package com.javazquez;

public class FuncProgUtilExtension {
    public static Collection filter(Collection self, Closure clozure) {
	   return self.grep(clozure)
   }
   public static Collection map(Collection self, Closure clozure) {
	   return self.collect(clozure)
   }
   public static Object reduce(Collection self, Closure clozure) {
	   return self.inject(clozure)
   }
   public static Object reduce(Collection self, String operator) {
	   switch(operator){
		   case '+' :
		      self.inject({acc, val -> acc + val})
			  break
		   case '-' :
			   self.inject({acc, val -> acc - val})
			   break
		   case'*' :
			   self.inject({acc, val -> acc * val})
			   break
		   case '/':
		   	   self.inject({acc, val -> acc / val})
			   break
		   case'**':
		   	   self.inject({acc, val -> Math.pow(acc, val)})
			   break
		   default:
			   throw new IllegalArgumentException()
			   break
	   }
   }
}

In a file named ‘org.codehaus.groovy.runtime.ExtensionModule’ located in ‘src/main/resources/META-INF/services/’

I have the following

moduleName=JavazquezFuncProgTest
moduleVersion=1.0
extensionClasses=com.javazquez.FuncProgUtilExtention

Using spock, I wrote the following tests :

package com.javazquez

import spock.lang.Specification

class FuncProgUtilSpec extends Specification{

	def "test map"(){
		expect:
			[ 1 ,2 ,3 ,4].map{it*2} == 	[ 1 ,2 ,3 ,4].collect{ it*2 } 	
	}	
	def "test reduce "(){
		expect:
			[ 1 ,2 ,3].reduce('*') == 6
			[ 1 ,2 ,3,4].reduce('+') == 10
			[ '1' ,'2' ,'3','4'].reduce('+') == '1234'
			[ 1 ,2 ,3].reduce('-') == -4
			[ 2, 2 ,2].reduce('**') == 16
			[ 1 ,2 ,3].reduce({acc, val -> acc + val}) ==[ 1 ,2 ,3].inject { acc, val -> acc + val}
	}
	def "test invalid argument"(){
	 	when:
	 		[ 1 ,2 ,3,4].reduce('%')
		then:
			thrown(IllegalArgumentException)
	}
	def "test filter"(){
		expect:
			[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9].filter { it % 2 ==0 } == [2,4,6,8]
			[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9].filter { it > 2 } == [3,4,5,6,7,8,9]
			"Juan Vazquez".toList().filter { it ==~ /[aeiou]/} == ['u','a','a','u','e']
	}
}

My biggest obstacle was getting the directory structure correct. It is amazing how little code was required to accomplish my goal. I hope my example project and listed references will help in your understanding of this powerful feature. My next step with this project going to be to make evaluation lazy.

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